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South Sudan Suggest Edits Print
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Country Profile

The Republic of South Sudan (SD) is governed by a bicameral National Legislature with its seat of government in Juba, the capital.  It is a member of the UN, UNESCO and the ITU.

South Sudan is the world's 144th largest economy by GDP and has a population of 11,562,695.1  The country had approximately 100 Internet users as at December 2013.2  No data exists as to the number of Facebook subscribers in South Sudan at the present time.

In Q4 of 2012 the total number of mobile subscribers in Sudan was approximately 2,329,000 and in Q4 of 2013 the total was approximately 2,954,000, an increase of 26.80%.  This figure includes both contract and pre-paid connections for both Sudan and South Sudan, as the data pre-dates the latter’s independence.3

Currently, the youth population (0 - 14 years) represents 45.8% of the population.4

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Sudan suffered long-running internal conflicts and war for much of time after it gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1956.  Two north-south civil wars left 1.5 million people dead, and ongoing fighting in the western region of Darfur forced two million people from their homes and killed more than 200,000.5  Long periods of conflict have left the country’s infrastructure dilapidated and outreach to rural and remote areas still poses a considerable challenge.6 The lack of resources, poverty and political unrest leaves ICT a low priority on list of basic needs in most areas of South Sudan.  

Once the largest state in Africa, Sudan split into two countries in July 2011 after the people of the south voted for independence. The government of Sudan gave its blessing for an independent South Sudan, and, after a vote, the south seceded.7  The UNHCR has produced a country operations report for South Sudan which provides further information as to the challenges the country faces, as well as its natural resources.8

ICT is not currently mentioned in relation to the education sector.  The immediate focus at a government and NGO level is on providing adequate learning facilities, increasing enrolment and training teachers.  Further information can be found in the Education section below.

South Sudan’s Penal Code Act, 2008, makes provision for computer-related offenses such as the unauthorized access to or use of a computer network, deliberate introduction of computer viruses, and the unauthorized use or credit or debit cards.  Internet-related offenses such as the dissemination of child pornography or cyberbullying however do not feature at the present time.

No organizations could be found which offer online safety information to South Sudanese citizens at the present time.

This research applies to Sudan prior to the south’s secession.

United Nations, ECSWA (2009).  National Profile of the Information Society in the Sudan.  This report provides information on the country’s ICT infrastructure, as well as detailing initiatives for capacity-building and the role of the media in a Sudanese information society.  While children and online safety are not mentioned, it provides a useful picture of the national approach to ICT and the challenges faced to date.  To read the report in full go to http://www.escwa.un.org/wsis/reports/docs/Sudan-09-E.pdf

BBC World Service, (2008).  Internet Media Use & Public Opinion.  This research involved respondents in Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Israel, Kuwait, UAE, Yemen, Libya, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, Algeria and Tunisia and asks a variety of questions, including where people access the Internet, what languages they speak and where they go to obtain news information.  The study included respondents aged from fifteen and above and the fifteen to 24 year-old age group is quoted often.  To read the research in full go to http://www.cicpo.gov.eg/Day1/Karl%20G.Feld.pdf

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A report compiled by former UK Prime Minister, Gordon Brown, as part of his Education For All campaign, states that over one million of South Sudan’s primary school-aged children are not in school.9  At a secondary school level, enrolment rates are below 10%.  Only 6% of thirteen year-old girls have completed primary school.  The report says that the government has ambitious plans for the education system, but that these have been hampered by civil unrest, untrained teachers and a lack of finance.  In addition to government efforts, the Ecumenical Church of South Sudan operates the largest teacher in-service training program in the country.  To read the report in full go to http://educationenvoy.org/Education-in-South-Sudan.pdf

In 2011, UNESCO and the country’s Ministry of Education launched the 2011 EFA Global Monitoring Report in the country’s capital city of Juba.10  Building a Better Future: Education for an Independent South Sudan, paints a stark picture of a country where textbooks are in short supply and the majority of children who do receive education are doing so in tents, the open air or semi-permanent structures, as opposed to permanent school buildings.  It also notes, however, that experience gained from other post-conflict countries demonstrates that rapid growth in the education sector is possible.  To read the report in full go to http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001930/193052E.pdf

There is currently no information available regarding Internet safety lessons in schools.

This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity.  Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.

The age of consent in South Sudan is eighteen, as defined by section 247 of the Penal Code Act, 2008.11

  • Section 247, Penal Code. Rape.  This section states that anyone who has sexual intercourse with another person against their will or without their consent is guilty of rape.  The penalty is up to fourteen years’ imprisonment and a possible fine.  A person under the age of eighteen is deemed incapable of giving consent.
  • Section 248, Penal Code.  Unnatural Offences.  Imposes a penalty of up to ten years’ imprisonment in addition to a possible fine for anyone who has anal sexual intercourse with another person.  Where the other person did not consent to the act, the prison term will be increased to a maximum of fourteen years.  A person under the age of eighteen is deemed incapable of giving consent.
  • Section 249, Penal Code.  Acts of Gross Indecency.  States that anyone who commits an act of gross indecency upon another person without consent, or with consent if this was obtained by the use of force or threat, is guilty of an offense and will be liable to up to fourteen years’ imprisonment and/or a fine.
  • Section 250, Penal Code.  Word, Gesture or Act Intended to Insult the Modesty of a Woman.  This section states that anyone who, intending to insult the modesty of any woman, makes any sound or gesture, exhibits any object or utters any word, intending that this will be heard or seen, is guilty of an offense and will be sentenced to a term of imprisonment for up to two years and/or a fine.
  • Section 251, Penal Code.  Public Indecency.  States that anyone who indecently exposes himself/herself or engages in any other indecent conduct which causes offense to any other person in or near a public place will be liable to imprisonment for up to six months and/or a fine.  When determining the sentence, the court shall take into account the nature of the words or conduct, the extent to which the conduct was persisted in, the age of the person who witnessed the conduct, and any previous relationship between the parties.
  • Section 252, Penal Code.  Soliciting.  Defines the offense as to publicly solicit another person for the purposes of prostitution.  Soliciting renders the offender liable to up to six months’ imprisonment and/or a fine.
  • Section 253, Penal Code.  Living Off or Facilitating Prostitution.  States that anyone who demands payment from a prostitute in consideration for the person having solicited other persons for immoral purposes on behalf of that prostitute; for keeping or managing a brothel in which the victim lives; for having brought or assisted in bringing the prostitute into Southern Sudan for immoral purposes, will be liable to up to two years’ imprisonment and/or a fine.
  • Section 254, Penal Code.  Procuring.  This section states that anyone who procures another person for the purposes of engaging in unlawful sexual conduct with another person, whether inside or outside Southern Sudan, is guilty of procuration and liable to imprisonment for up to two years and/or a fine.  If the victim is a child, the penalty will be increased to a maximum of ten years’ imprisonment.  The offense also includes procuring a person to become a prostitute.
  • Section 255, Penal Code.  Coercing or Inducing Persons for Purpose of Engaging in Sexual Conduct.  Defines the offense as to detain another person against their will with the intention that the victim shall engage in unlawful sexual intercourse with another person or the offender.  The penalty for this offense is up to one year’s imprisonment and/or a fine.
  • Section 257, Penal Code.  Permitting Young Person to Resort to Place for Purpose of Engaging in Unlawful Sexual Conduct.  States that any owner of a place who induces or allows a young person to enter or be in their place for the purpose of engaging in unlawful sexual intercourse with another person, is guilty of an offense.  Where the child is under the age of twelve, the penalty is up to twelve years’ imprisonment and/or a fine.  If the minor is of or over the age of twelve, the prison sentence will be reduced to a maximum of seven years.  It is a valid defense to a charge under this section that the accused believed the child to be of or over the age of eighteen years.
  • Section 260, Penal Code.  Sale of Obscene Books etc..  States that it is an offense to sell, distribute, import, print, make for sale or hire, or exhibit to public view any obscene writing, book, newspaper, film, audio recording, drawing, painting or any other object.  An infringement of this section renders the offender liable to imprisonment for up to three years and/or a fine.
  • Section 261, Penal Code.  Deliberate Infection of Another Person with a Sexually Transmitted Disease.  States that anyone who, knowing that he/she is infected with a sexually transmitted disease, intentionally infects another person with the disease, will be liable to imprisonment for a maximum of five years and/or a fine.  It is a defense to a charge under this section for the accused to prove that the other person knew about the disease but consented to the act in question.
  • Section 262, Penal Code.  Deliberate Transmission of HIV/AIDS.  States that anyone who knowingly infects another person with HIV/AIDS will be liable to imprisonment for up to five years and/or a fine.  It is a defense to a charge under this section for the accused to prove that the other person knew about the disease and consented to the act in question.
  • Section 263, Penal Code.  Sentence for Certain Offenses where Accused is Infected with HIV/AIDS.  Increases the penalties prescribed for rape, aggravated indecent assault, sexual intercourse or performing an indecent act with a young person (involving the penetration of any part of the young person’s body) to a minimum of ten years’ imprisonment if the accused knew that they were infected with HIV/AIDS.
  • Section 273, Penal Code.  Kidnapping or Abducting a Woman to Compel her Marriage, etc..  This section states that anyone who kidnaps or abducts a woman with intent that she shall have unlawful sexual intercourse is guilty of an offense and liable to up to ten years’ imprisonment and/or a fine.
  • Section 276, Penal Code.  Buying or Selling or Disposal of a Minor for Purpose of Prostitution.  Imposes a penalty of up to fourteen years’ imprisonment and/or a fine for anyone who buys, sells, hires, lets to hire or otherwise obtains possession or disposes of any person under the age of eighteen with the intent that such a person shall be employed or used for any unlawful or immoral purpose.
  • Section 282, Penal Code.  Trafficking in Persons.  States that anyone who procures, entices or leads away, even with consent, any person for sale or immoral purposes to be carried outside Southern Sudan, is guilty of an offense and liable to up to seven years’ imprisonment and/or a fine.
  • Section 289, Penal Code.  Defamation.  Defines the offense as to make or publish any imputation concerning another person, intending to harm the reputation of that person, by words either spoken or reproduced by any mechanical means or intended to be read.  Defamation renders the offender liable to imprisonment for up to two years and/or a fine.

Government

Ministry of General Education & Instruction
The Ministry aims to provide education for all citizens of South Sudan, as well as a number of other goals.  To find out more go to http://www.goss-online.org/magnoliaPublic/en/ministries/Education-Science-and-Technology.html

Non-Government

UNESCO
UNESCO’s Education For All page on South Sudan has a range of information about the country and, especially, education.  It contains written reports, as well as some video interviews with key stakeholders.  To find out more go to http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading-the-international-agenda/efareport/specials/south-sudan/


Sources

Page last reviewed August 29, 2014

1 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ (last accessed August 27, 2014)
2 http://www.internetworldstats.com (last accessed August 27, 2014)
3 https://gsmaintelligence.com/ (last accessed August 27, 2014)
4 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ (last accessed August 27, 2014)
5 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/country_profiles/820864.stm (last accessed February 4, 2013)
6 http://www.infodev.org/en/Document.430.html (last accessed February 4, 2013)
7 http://www.nccer.edu.sd/section-learning-techniques.html (last accessed February 5, 2013)
8 http://www.unhcr.org/pages/4e43cb466.html (last accessed February 5, 2013)
9 http://educationenvoy.org/Education-in-South-Sudan.pdf (last accessed February 5, 2013)
10 http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001930/193052E.pdf (last accessed February 5, 2013)
11 http://www.mpil.de/shared/data/pdf/penal_code_act_eng_2008.pdf (last accessed February 5, 2013)

 

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